sprinkler water-saving irrigation technology classification
time：2016-8-27 10:15:58 click：1098
to save water, irrigation currently uses water-saving irrigation. water-saving irrigation with less water irrigate more crops, to obtain the production and economic benefits. currently, there are water-saving sprinkler irrigation, micro-irrigation, drip irrigation, the membrane irrigation, drip irrigation under mulch and other means.
water-saving irrigation technology category:
1, water pipes
water pipes using pipe water directly to field irrigation to reduce water seepage and evaporation losses in the open channel conveyance process. irrigation water pipeline in developed countries has been widely adopted. currently water pipe application irrigation area in north china is also faster. there are commonly used pipe concrete pipe, plastic hard (soft) tube and metal tubes. compared with the water conveyance pipeline channels with water quickly, water, provincial, yield, etc., the benefits are: water utilization factor can be increased to 0.95; saving 20% -30%; 2% province -3%; 10% yield increase. at present, such as low-pressure plastic pipe water, excluding water project construction investment (hereinafter the same), the investment is 100 acres of -150 million.
in areas where conditions permit should actively develop the actual water pipes. however, water pipe only reduces the amount of water during the water loss, but to be truly efficient water use, but also supporting the spray, drip irrigation and other water-saving measures in the field. there is no force supporting spray, drip irrigation equipment where pressure on the pipeline and pipe laying capacity should consider the future development of spray, drip irrigation requirements in order to avoid wastage.
sprinkler pipes using pressurized water to irrigate the area and dispersed into small droplets through a nozzle, evenly sprayed into the field for crop irrigation. it is an advanced mechanization and semi-mechanized irrigation methods, it has been widely used in many developed countries.
the main advantage of sprinkler is as follows: water-saving effect is remarkable, water utilization up to 90%. in general, compared with surface irrigation sprinkler, one cubic meter of water can be a two cubic meters of water. crop yield big margin, generally up to 20% -40%. the reason for this is the elimination of agricultural drainage, sublateral, field irrigation ditch and furrow ridge, an increase of 15% -20% of plantings; irrigation uniformity, the soil is not compacted, is conducive to grab the season, the preservation of seedlings; improving field microclimate and agriculture ecosystem. greatly reducing the workload of field management and maintenance of canal construction and land leveling and the like. reducing farmers for irrigation and money and labor costs, increase farmers' income. help speed up the realization of agricultural mechanization, industrialization and modernization. avoid soil salinization caused by excessive irrigation. there are commonly used sprinkler pipeline, pan-style, center pivot, small volume and light disc unit type.
mobile sprinkler irrigation is generally fixed to the trunk pipelines buried in the ground, field manifold and nozzle removable removal, use of working capital, thus reducing investment. shunyi county has several million mu of irrigated cropland are using this form. 10 years of practice has proved: portable sprinkler pipe sprinkler addition to the general water-saving, production, outside the province, reducing farmers' burdens, and to the mechanization of agriculture, industrialization, modernization, etc., but also with simple equipment, easy operation, low investment , the size and shape of plots adaptability, a household or in combination may be used, etc., is a micro-sprinkler present form more suitable for china's national conditions, can be heavily promoted, suitable for field crops, vegetables, mus investment 200 yuan a 250 yuan.
fixed sprinkler irrigation is the pipe, sprinkler installation in the field is fixed, its high irrigation efficiency, easy management, suitable for vegetables, fruit trees and cash crops irrigation. however, higher investment (mu investment in general about 1000 yuan), is not conducive to mechanized farming.
center pivot irrigation machine and translational large, walk only within a predetermined range, can not walk tall obstructions within the region, the more flat land claims. its high degree of mechanization and automation, suitable for high level management of large scale farms or farmland. the use of domestic equipment investment per mu 300 -400 yuan.
winch sprinkler, against the inner tube hydrodynamic pressure-driven travel operation, compared with the center pivot and translational type of large-scale irrigation machine with flexible, to adapt to the size of the plots, acres of investment in equipment is low. currently imported equipment investment of 50 yuan per mu, the device can be further reduced localization of investment, which is suitable for china's national conditions, promising sprinkler form, suitable for field crops and vegetables. irrigation machines - there are two kinds of gun rack and fold-style, which has good atomization, low power consumption advantages. light and small sprinkler unit, or can be hand-carried or mounted on a tractor trolley with flexible, adaptable, low cost, etc., are usually used for smaller plots drought sprinkler. investment per mu is 100 yuan -200 yuan.
weipen is a newly developed form of sprinkler irrigation, micro jet is divided into hanging weipen, inserted micro jet. particularly suitable for use in the agricultural greenhouse put it more water than irrigation, more evenly sprayed on the crop. it is through pe plastic pipe water through micro-sprinklers spraying partial irrigation. more can be expanded to automatic control system combined with fertilizer, and improve efficiency. a standard greenhouse microjet system equipment investment is generally around 800 yuan.
drip irrigation is the use of plastic pipe water through an orifice diameter of about 16mm or capillary emitter on the locally irrigation to crop roots. it is currently the most effective way of saving irrigation arid areas, the utilization of up to 95% of its water. drip irrigation higher than the yield of water-saving effect, but can be combined with fertilizer, improve efficiency more than doubled. applied to fruit trees, vegetables, cash crops and greenhouse irrigation, drought and water shortage in the places where they can be used for field crops irrigation. the downside is the dripper easy to fouling and plugging, therefore deal with strict water filtration treatment. at present, domestic equipment has been basically pass, conditional region should actively develop drip irrigation.
fixed according to the degree of the pipe, drip irrigation can be divided into fixed and semi-fixed and mobile three types. fixed drip, dripper its pipeline at all levels and the location of the irrigation season is fixed. the advantage is easy to operate, saving labor, time, good irrigation effect. mu domestic equipment investment is about 700 yuan (fruit) -1 400 yuan (greenhouse vegetables). semi-permanent drip irrigation, a dry, branch pipes fixed, capillary movement by hand. 500 acres investment -700 million. mobile drip irrigation, the dry, branch, capillary moved manually by simple equipment, compared with semi-fixed drip irrigation to save investment, but more labor. mu investment 2 yuan a 500 yuan.
combined with china's labor force, lack of funds and the specific circumstances of the research and development of semi-fixed, mobile drip irrigation system, greatly reducing the project cost for drip irrigation in field crops and underdeveloped areas to promote the application to create the conditions.
drip irrigation water storage, runoff is by collecting rainwater or other surface referenced to the cellar (or other micro-water storage project) inside, or use as a small mobile water storage tank of water, adding a drip to solve the arid region irrigation problems. it has a simple structure, low cost, every household can use features. for drought poor mountainous achieve each have half an acre to an acre of farmland hanlaobaoshou, problems of poverty and the development of courtyard economy plays an important role, should be vigorously promoted in arid and dry mountains.
drip irrigation, drip irrigation buried in the ground is the crop root zone irrigation water through the pores into the soil for uptake by plants. in some places separated a certain distance on a plastic pipe to drill a small hole, buried underground near the roots of the plants were irrigated, the people commonly known as "infiltration irrigation." subsurface drip irrigation has little evaporation loss, water, power, and fertilizer, labor and yield significant benefits, etc., fruit trees, cotton, crops etc. can be used. the disadvantage is 2, when the spacing is large irrigation pipe is not uniform, it should not be used in large or steep ground where the soil permeability. 400 acres investment -1000 yuan. its benefits are: saving 50% -60%; saving 40% -50%; yield about 30%.
5, the membrane irrigation
mulching with furrow bottom of the field, the introduction of irrigation water from the top film flows through the membrane pores penetrate the soil near the roots of crop irrigation, irrigation of this approach is called film has a large area in xinjiang promotion. using membrane irrigation, less deep percolation and evaporation losses, water significantly, on the basis of plastic film mulching planting material without additional cost, and can play the role of soil warming and soil moisture in. drip irrigation in arid regions can be placed in the film, or the use of irrigation through capillary membrane pores, which called the film under irrigation. this approach not only has the advantage of drip irrigation, but also has the advantages of mulching, water saving and better yield.
6, drip irrigation under mulch
in the relatively poor areas of water drip irrigation can be placed under the membrane, or the use of capillary pores through the membrane for irrigation, which is called drip irrigation under mulch. this drip irrigation methods has both advantages (increasing water efficiency), but also has the advantages of mulching (accumulated increase), especially in the north - saving better yield.